PURPOSE: Athletes involved in team sports may be subject to varying degrees of sleep deprivation either before or after training and competition. Despite the belief among athletes and coaches of the importance of adequate sleep for ensuing performance, the effect of sleep loss on team-sport anaerobic performance remains unclear. There is conflicting evidence in the scientific literature as to the impact of acute sleep deprivation and caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance indices. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of 24 hours of acute sleep deprivation on anaerobic performance and the effect of caffeine supplementation on anaerobic performance in the sleep deprived state.
METHODS: 11 club level games players (n=11, 25±4 yr, 178±7.5 cm, 80.2±10.4 kg, 15.1±5.6% body fat) participated in a repeated measures double-blinded placebo control trial. Following familiarisation, each participant returned for testing on three separate occasions. One of the testing sessions took place following a night of normal sleep and the other two sessions took place following 24 hours of sleep deprivation with supplementation of either placebo or 6 mg.kg- 1 of caffeine. During each testing session participants performed the vertical jump height, 20-m straight sprint, Illinois speed agility test and 5-m shuttle run.
RESULTS: No significant differences were detected comparing non sleep deprived and sleep deprived interventions in any of the assessed outcome measures. There were also no significant differences observed in any of the outcome measures when comparing caffeine and placebo data in the sleep deprived state.
CONCLUSION: In this cohort of athletes, a 24-h period of acute sleep deprivation did not have any significant impact on anaerobic performance. Caffeine also did not have any effect of on anaerobic performance in the sleep-deprived state.
Keywords: Sleep Deprivation; Caffeine; Anaerobic Treatment; Placebo Effect.
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the selected treatment for moderate to severe OSA and could improve arrhythmias in the long term. However, the acute effect of CPAP has not been studied in detail.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective study with 25 patients with moderate to severe OSA diagnosed by home respiratory polygraphy (RP) and arrhythmia and/or pauses in 24-hour Holter ECG. We analyzed inflammatory parameters and the rate of arrhythmias/pauses after 7 days of auto-adjusting CPAP.
RESULTS: 92.5% of the patients were men with a mean age of 61.7±1.9 years. Body mass index (BMI) was 59.5±2.2 kg/m2, with a mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) of 37.7±3.8 events/hour (ev/h), and a residual AHI (AHIr) of 5.3±0.53 ev/h. After short treatment with CPAP we observed a tendency to improvement in both the severity and number of ventricular extrasystoles (VE) (1595.0±850.3 vs. 926.4±434.5 respectively), pauses and the inflammatory parameters (CRP 3.9±3.1 vs. 1.7±1.2, glycemia 131.4±11.6 vs. 121.9±9.8, HOMA 24.4±3.1 vs. 21.7±2.8, insulin 7.6±1.4 vs. 7.2±1.2 (p>0.5).
CONCLUSION: We didn´t find significant changes in pauses, VE and inflammatory parameters with CPAP short therapy in CPAP naive patients recently diagnosed with OSA.
Keywords: Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Blood Chemical Analysis; Sleep Apnea, Obstructive.
OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of positional (PP) OSA patients using self-administered home-based respiratory polygraphy (RP).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: 52 month retrospective study based on RP records.
RESULTS: 200 PR records: 70.5% men 29.5% women. 76% were diagnosed with OSA and 54.6% with PP OSA. There were no significant differences in Epworth Sleepiness Scale, apnea hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index. PP OSA patients were younger, had a lower BMI (30.3±0.9 vs. 35.3±1.2) (p<0.0001), and the time they spent with oxygen saturation <90% (T<90) was lower (8.8 vs. 28.7±6.7, p=0.0038). The PP OSA group spent 43% of total recording time in the supine position.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PP OSA patients studied with RP is similar to the one described by sleep laboratories. They have lower BMI, present mostly mild OSA with less desaturation, and are less likely to receive CPAP therapy.
Keywords: Sleep Apnea Syndromes; Sleep Apnea, Obstructive; Continuous Positive Airway Pressure; Supine Position.
OBJECTIVE: This study uses polysomnography and the Epworth sleepiness scale to assess the efficiency of the Ocluch©MAD in patients with Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAS), on overall respiratory disturbance indices (RDI), supine respiratory disturbance index (SRDI), minimum oxygen saturation, microarousals, CT90 (or ID90), sleep efficacy and snoring. These data are associated with skeletal class and facial biotype in order to establish predictive parameters for its effectiveness according to craniofacial morphology.
METHODS: 22 adult patients (between 38 and 60 years of age) of both sexes (7 women, 15 men) diagnosed with OSAS in the Hospital de Carabineros de Chile (HOSCAR) Neurology Unit were recruited and given the Ocluch© MAD in the hospital's dental clinic, for its use during a three-month period. Patients were assess at the beginning and in the end of this period.
RESULTS: 87.5% of patients with mild OSAS achieved the success criterion and normalization; 71.5% of patients with moderate OSAS achieved the success criterion and 33.3% achieved normalization; 85.7% of patients with severe OSAS achieved the success criterion and 57.1% achieved normalization. All class I and mesofacial patients achieved normalization, but class II patients had the greatest proportional improvement.
CONCLUSIONS: The Ocluch MAD is an efficient low-cost alternative that should be considered among the therapeutic arsenal for a multidisciplinary approach to treating this disease.
Keywords: Sleep Apnea Syndromes; Mandibular Advancement; Dental Devices, Home Care, Craniofacial Morphology.
INTRODUCTION: Mountaineers exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH) show high-altitude periodic breathing (PB).
OBJECTIVE: To analyze high-altitude PB during the ascent of Mount Aconcagua (Argentina).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive study in healthy volunteers using respiratory polygraphy (RP) at different altitudes.
RESULTS: We studied 8 andinist, mean age: 36 years old (25-51), body mass index (BMI) of 23.6 (20.9-28.7) and 22.77 (20.9-27.7) upon return, p<0.01. RP without PB showed a lower Oxygen Desaturation Index (ODI) and a lower Apnea-Hypopnea-Index (AHI); 5.43 (0 - 20) versus 45.95 (2-122) p<0.001 and 3.9 (0-15.5) versus 44.35 (4-115) p<0.001. AHI increased with altitude at the expense of central apneas and hypopneas: p<0.05.
CONCLUSION: High-altitude PB is frequent above 2,581m.a.s.l. And it is characterized by short cycles. None of the mountaineers showed PB at baseline; however, high-altitude PB occurred in all subjects above 4,900 m.a.s.l
Keywords: Sleep Apnea, Central; Sleep Apnea Syndromes; Cheyne-Stokes Respiration
Stroke is an example of neurological diseases that can commonly drives Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS). Extensive strokes with brain edema can leave a brain herniation and coma. Other causes of EDS after stroke are strategic lesions at Thalamus and brainstein. A 56-year-old man, right handed, with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was admitted at Emergency Room due to 5 days onset of EDS, memory impairment, and left-sided weakness. A brain magnetic resonance imaging showed paramedian thalamic hyperintensity with rostral midbrain hyperintensity extending along the pial surface of the interpeduncular fossa. The artery of Percheron (AP) is an unusual anatomical variation that originates from the posterior cerebral artery and irrigates the paramedian regions of the thalamus and part of the midbrain. It is important the clinical suspicions with detailed drowsy patients history. Awareness of the clinical and neuroimaging features of this stroke syndrome is essential for timely diagnosis and appropriate management.
Keywords: Stroke; Sleep; Midline Thalamic Nuclei; Midbrain Reticular Formation.
Background: Attended polysomnography (PSG) is the standard diagnostic test for sleep apnea (SA). However, due to internight variability in SA, a single night PSG may not accurately reflect the true severity of SA. Although internight variability is a well-known phenomenon, its root causes have not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with internight variability in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and its magnitude in the home environment.
METHODS: Each participant had a full overnight PSG simultaneous with a validated portable sleep apnea monitoring device (BresoDx®) followed by two overnight home tests using the portable monitor only. Patients were stratified into those with variable AHI and consistent AHI (AHI difference ≥10 or <10 between any 2 nights, respectively). Demographics, sleepiness, sleep test variable, and supine-predominant SA (supine-SA) were examined for any association with variable AHI.
RESULTS: Forty patients completed the protocol. The correlation between PSG and simultaneous BresoDx derived AHIs was 93.4%. Inter-class correlation between the three nights' AHIs was 89.2%. Over two-thirds (67.5%) of patients had consistent AHIs across the three nights while 32.5% had variable AHI. AHI variability was significantly associated with supine-SA (p=0.0014) and correlated with first night's AHI (r=0.664, p<0.001). None of the other variable, including BMI, sleepiness, gender, or test duration were associated with internight variability.
CONCLUSION: Although portable monitoring was highly reproducible over three nights in the majority of participants, one third had a variable AHI. Supine-SA and high AHI on the first night were predictors of high internight variability.
Keywords: Supine Position; Sleep Apnea Syndromes; Sleep Monitoring.
Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a chronic sleep disorder, characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and fragmented nocturnal sleep. It is caused by a hypocretin deficiency due to a significant reduction of the neurons producing it. In the last years, it has been postulated that an autoimmune mechanism would be responsible for the destruction of these neurons in those genetically predisposed patients. The increased incidence of narcolepsy after the pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination campaign in 2009-2010 is known. We present below the case of an adult patient who, 10 days after receiving H1N1 vaccination, suffers a traffic accident after falling asleep. Subsequent studies revealed hyperthyroidism due to Graves disease. In spite of the treatment, the patient persisted with daily and disabling daytime sleepiness, sleep attacks and episodes of generalized muscle atony with preservation of consciousness. A nocturnal polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were performed with a diagnosis of NT1. The particularity of this case is the presentation of 2 autoimmune diseases triggered by an H1N1 vaccine without adjuvant, so far there is only evidence of NT1 associated with vaccines with adjuvant and viral infection. The association of both entities has made us reflect on the autoimmune mechanism, reinforcing the theory of its role in the onset of the disease.
Keywords: Narcolepsy; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Influenza Vaccines; Hyperthyroidism
INTRODUCTION: Existing sleep questionnaires to assess sleep behaviors may not be sensitive in determining the unique sleep challenges faced by elite athletes. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate the Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (ASBQ) to be used as a practical tool for support staff working with elite athletes.
METHODS: 564 participants (242 athletes, 322 non-athletes) completed the 18-item ASBQ and three previously validated questionnaires; the Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A cohort of the studied population performed the ASBQ twice in one week to assess test-retest reliability, and also performed sleep monitoring via wrist-actigraphy.
RESULTS: Comparison of the ASBQ with existing sleep questionnaires resulted in moderate to large correlations (r=0.32 - 0.69). There was a significant difference between athletes and non-athletes for the ASBQ global score (44±6 vs. 41±6, respectively, p<0.01) and for the PSQI, but not for the SHI or the ESS. The reliability of the ASBQ was acceptable (ICC=0.87) when re-tested within 7 days. There was a moderate relationship between ASBQ and total sleep time (r=-0.42).
CONCLUSION: The ASBQ is a valid and reliable tool that can differentiate the sleep practices between athletes and non-athletes, and offers a practical instrument for practitioners and/or researchers wanting to evaluate the sleep behaviors of elite athletes. The ASBQ may provide information on areas where improvements to individual athletes' sleep habits could be made.
Keywords: Surveys and Questionnaires; Actigraphy; Polysomnography; Sleep Hygiene; Athletes.
According to recent reports, sleep disorders affect 30% of the adult population and 5-10% of children. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSA) has a considerable epidemiological impact and demand for consultation is growing in our community. Therefore, it is necessary to know the principles of interpretation of diagnostic methods. A suspicion of OSA requires confirmation. According to the guidelines of the Argentine Association of Respiratory Medicine, polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for OSA diagnosis, while home sleep testing (HST) can be accepted as a comparatively effective method depending on the clinical situation of the patient. This article questions the use of AHI (apnea-hypopnea index) as the only measurement needed to diagnose OSA and assess its severity. In fact, it is surprising that, despite the large mass of data analyzed during sleep studies, current practices only focus on AHI. More than four decades have passed since OSA was first described. Our tendency to oversimplify complex conditions may prevent us from gaining a deeper and more thorough understanding of OSA. The development and validation of OSA severity scoring systems based on multiple parameters is still a pending issue.
Keywords: Sleep Apnea Syndromes; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep Disorder.