INTRODUCTION: Extracts of the plant Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) were administered intraperitoneally in order to test its effects on sleep.
METHOD: Experiments were carried out on chronically implanted male adult wistar rats to obtain cerebral (EEG), ocular (EOG) and muscular (EMG) activities throughout their states of vigilance. Polygraphic recordings were taken during 9 continuous hours before and after the extract administration (500 mg/kg).
RESULTS: Passiflora incarnata induced a significant increment in the total sleep time (p<0.05). This increment was due to an increase in the time spent by animals in slow wave sleep (SWS). Concomitantly, a significant decrement in wakefulness (W) was observed (p<0.05). In contrast, time spent in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed a decreasing tendency, since both its frequency and mean duration were reduced.
CONCLUSIONS: The extracts obtained from Passiflora incarnata can be considered as appropriated sleep inducers.
Keywords: Passifloraceae; Sleep Aids, Pharmaceutical; Insomnia; Sleep; Sleep, REM.
Compared to literature on seasonal variation in mood and well-being, reports on seasonality of trouble sleeping are scarce and contradictive. To extend geography of such reports on example of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature. Participants were the residents of Turkmenia, West Siberia, South and North Yakutia, Chukotka, and Alaska. Health and sleep-wake adaptabilities, month-to-month variation in sleeping problems, well-being and behaviors were self-assessed. More than a half of 2398 respondents acknowledged seasonality of sleeping problems. Four of the assessed sleeping problems demonstrated three different patterns of seasonal variation. Rate of the problems significantly increased in winter months with long nights and cold days (daytime sleepiness and difficulties falling and staying asleep) as well as in summer months with either long days (premature awakening and difficulties falling and staying asleep) or hot nights and days (all 4 sleeping problems). Individual differences between respondents in pattern and level of seasonality of sleeping problems were significantly associated with differences in several other domains of individual variation, such as gender, age, ethnicity, physical health, morning-evening preference, sleep quality, and adaptability of the sleep-wake cycle. These results have practical relevance to understanding of the roles playing by natural environmental factors in seasonality of sleeping problems as well as to research on prevalence of sleep disorders and methods of their prevention and treatment in regions with large seasonal differences in temperature and daylength.
Keywords: Health Care Facilities; Sleep; Sleep Wake Disorders; Seasons; Cold Temperature.
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about distribution of sleep disturbances in Mexican population is limited.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the crude prevalence rates of several sleep complaints and the prevalence for each one adjusted for the coexistence of symptoms in other sleep domains in a representative sample of adult individuals from Mexico City.
METHODS:A probabilistic sample of 1933 adult individuals living in Mexico City was surveyed using fourteen questions of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire to assess sleep-related symptoms and sleep complaints. Estimates of crude prevalence rates for each sleep disturbance and adjusted for a score ≥ the 80th. percentile in the questionnaire were calculated.
RESULTS: The following prevalence rates were found: insomnia 39.7%; excessive diurnal sleepiness (EDS) 20.9%; obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (EDS plus snoring) 7.7%; habitual snoring 9.9%; restless legs syndrome (RLS) 4.4%; narcolepsy 0.9%; sleep paralysis (SP) 13.2%; and hypnotic use 1.2%. When prevalence rates were calculated accounting for symptoms in other sleep domains, notable reductions were observed in complaints of insomnia (17.3%), EDS (10.3%), and SP (8.7%), while minor decreases were observed for complaints of snoring (7.4%), OSAS (5%), and RLS (3.8%); narcolepsy prevalence practically did not change (0.9%).
CONCLUSIONS: Sleep complaints are highly prevalent in Mexican adult population. More than a half of the individuals with a given sleep disturbance have a global sleep deterioration associated to psychosocial and health impairments.
Keywords: Prevalence; Epidemiology; Sleep disorders; Mexico.
OBJECTIVE: In a device based on midsagittal jaw movements analysis, we assessed a sleep-wake automatic detector as an objective method to measure sleep in healthy adults by comparison with wrist actigraphy against polysomnography (PSG).
METHODS: Simultaneous and synchronized in-lab PSG, wrist actigraphy and jaw movements were carried out in 38 healthy participants. Epoch by epoch analysis was realized to assess the ability to sleep-wake distinction. Sleep parameters as measured by the three devices were compared. This included three regularly reported parameters: total sleep time, sleep onset latency, and wake after sleep onset. Also, two supplementary parameters, wake during sleep period and latency time, were added to measure quiet wakefulness state.
RESULTS: The jaw movements showed sensitivity level equal to actigraphy 96% and higher specificity level (64% and 48% respectively). The level of agreement between the two devices was high (87%). The analysis of their disagreement by discrepant resolution analysis used PSG as resolver revealed that jaw movements was right (58.9%) more often than actigraphy (41%). In sleep parameters comparison, the coefficient correlation of jaw movements was higher than actigraphy in all parameters. Moreover, its ability to distinct sleep-wake state allowed for a more effective estimation of the parameters that measured the quiet wakefulness state.
CONCLUSIONS: Midsagittal jaw movements analysis is a reliable method to measure sleep. In healthy adults, this device proved to be superior to actigraphy in terms of estimation of all sleep parameters and distinction of sleep-wake status.
Keywords: Actigraphy; Movement; Sleep Wake Disorders; Sleep.
The present study assessed the potential of lip muscle training for improving sleep. A patient with heavy snoring, daytime sleepiness and dry mouth underwent lip muscle training. Lip closure force LCFmax increased by 67.3% and LCFmin by 152% post-training. AHI decreased from 12.2 to 3.9 events/h by reducing hypopneic episodes. TST, sleep stage N3 and REM sleep increased, and WASO, sleep stage N1, and AI decreased. The patient switched from mouth to nose breathing during sleep and stopped snoring. Improved LCF, by moving the tongue into the anterior-superior oral cavity, may increase upper airway space and reduce the hypopnea index.
Keywords: Myofunctional Therapy. Apnea. Mouth. Polysomnography.
OBJECTIVE: Differences in sleep results due to the placement of actigraphy devices (non-dominant vs. dominant wrist) are yet to be determined.
METHODS: 65 nights of data from 13 adult participants was collected while participants wore two actigraphy devices, one on each wrist. Sleep indices including total sleep time (TST), total time in bed (TTB), sleep efficiency (SE%), sleep latency (SL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep onset time (SOT) and wake time (WT) were assessed between the two devices.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences between devices for any of the measured sleep variables (p>0.05). SE%, SL and WASO resulted in high correlations between devices (0.89, 0.89 and 0.76, respectively), with all other sleep variables resulting in very high correlations (>0.90) between devices.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, it does not seem critical which wrist the actigraphy device is worn on for measuring key sleep variables.
Keywords: Polysomnography; Actigraphy; Validity of Tests; Technology.