OBJECTIVE: Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper-binding protein expressed in several tissues that plays distinct functions depending on the physiological context. Recently, increased ceruloplasmin expression in cavernosal tissue has been related to diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. Additionally, several ceruloplasmin activities are to modulate the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which is required for penile erection, suggesting that ceruloplasmin may be a candidate gene that regulates the physiology of penile erection. In previous studies, our group consistently demonstrated that paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) increases penile erection in male rats, but the underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown.
METHODS: We investigated the involvement of ceruloplasmin in paradoxical sleep deprivation-induced penile erection, determining the expression of 2 ceruloplasmin isoforms in cavernosal tissue of rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation, with or without a sleep recovery period.
RESULTS: Our findings demonstrated that paradoxical deprivation significantly increased the mRNA level of secreted ceruloplasmin by 1.3-fold compared to the controls, while the expression of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ceruloplasmin statistically differed only between the paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep-recovery groups, with ~20% less in the rebound group. However, this subtle modulation of mRNA level was not observed at the protein level.
CONCLUSION: These data indicate that ceruloplasmin is not a factor that directly coordinates erectile function.
Keywords: ceruloplasmin, diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction/chemically induced, gene expression, penile erection, sleep deprivation.
OBJECTIVES: The assessment of student achievement in the teaching-learning is a constant concern of the study professors. Actually the night shift is a reality in favor of the persons seeking qualification for a position in the labor market. This study aimed to evaluate the academic performance and correlate with the indices of student achievement and sleep patterns.
METHODS: Participants were college students from the University Center Herminio Ometto, UNIARARAS, SP, (n = 139) with a mean age of 23.59 years. Were used: a questionnaire to gather personal information and professional evaluation of sleep-wake cycle (sleep diaries), validated by Benedito-Silva et al. (1990). For the analysis of academic performance, we used the Scheduled System Assessment (SPA).
RESULTS: The sleep patterns were statistically different between groups (Mann-Whitney) for the variables bedtime (p < 0.001), bedtime (p <0.001), time to wake up (p <0.001) and duration nap (p = 0.009). As for academic performance, students in the daytime period had higher mean values when compared with the group the night.
CONCLUSION: The group of diurnal periods showed better academic performance in comparison with that of the night. The later the hour of waking, the lower academic performance, suggesting the effect of nighttime sleep and deficits. The sleep quality was better for the group of the day.
Keywords: educational measurement, sleep, students.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to analyze the relationship between job satisfaction and work ability and to identify factors associated with job dissatisfaction.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 101 shift workers from electrical systems control centers conducted in 2009. Two procedures were performed for data collection: 1) distribution of a questionnaire that included the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) to assess job satisfaction, a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to identify psychological disorders, and an International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-8); and 2) group interviews. Tests of association, correlation, and logistic and multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the data.
RESULTS: The population (97% males) had an average age of 38.5 years (SD= 11.8). The average OSI score was 90.8 (SD= 17.4), and the average WAI score was 42.5 (SD= 3.9). Although most workers indicated satisfaction with the items assessed, the likelihood of being dissatisfied at work increased almost three-fold among those who had worked for more than eight years at the company and more than eight-fold for those who were not satisfied with the time devoted to family. For each point increase in the WAI score, there was an average increase of one point in the work satisfaction score.
CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal a clear association between job satisfaction and work ability. The high demand placed on mental resources is the main factor causing the reduction of work ability, and it also negatively affects job satisfaction.
Keywords: job satisfaction, occupational health, shift work, work capacity evaluation, work/psychology.
OBJECTIVE: To describe circadian disruptions in septic patients and their relation to clinical outcome.
METHODS: In this work we performed an individual analysis of hemodynamic variables (cardiac frequency and mean blood pressure) in three groups of patients: severe sepsis, septic shock and individuals housed in the same intensive care unit by causes other than inflammation or infection, as controls, during the first and the last 24 hours of their permanency in the critical care unit.
RESULTS: Although the cosinor analysis showed no difference in the proportion of patients that expressed a statistically significant circadian rhythm, during the first 24 hours, the phase of the variations were disrupted in both septic groups, being almost in anti-phase as compared to control individuals. During the last 24 hours, this variation was present only for mean blood pressure. No association of these changes could be related to outcome (surveillance).
CONCLUSION: We conclude that disruptions in circadian rhythms in patients during severe stages of sepsis are related to phase better than presence/absence of variation, which could be crucial to time scheduled therapies.
Keywords: blood pressure, circadian, heart rate, sepsis.
To evaluate the relationships between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), this report provides a simple review of the literature relating to this subject. Patients with OSA have exhibited a higher frequency of nasal abnormalities compared to controls, suggesting that these alterations play some role in the physiopathology of this disease. However, clinical or surgical treatment of these abnormalities has been shown to be limited in controlling OSAS. Nevertheless, nasal surgeries are capable of reducing therapeutic pressure levels for positive airway pressure devices; the real benefit of the nose procedures on the use of positive airway pressure devices in the long term must be further assessed. Nasal evaluation in patients who are candidates for the use of an intraoral device is seldom discussed in the literature, and only one study has reported a positive finding, opening the way for new studies with this focus. Thus, the nose takes on an important role in OSAS; however, some aspects of its impact in the clinical and surgical treatment of OSAS still remain controversial.
Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea, nose, nasal obstruction.
Sleep is a biological manifestation which there is a periodic alternation between synchronized and desynchronized cerebral electrical activity. Although sleep occupies approximately a third of the human lifespan, the amount of time humans spend awake has increased over the years. Indeed, several of the functions of sleep have been associated with physiological alterations of organism subjected to acute or chronic sleep loss. Cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality today in all over the countries. Studies have shown that there is evidence that melatonin, a pineal hormone involved in the circadian regulation, may reduce the incidence and certainly the growth of tumors and it is associated with the biological process. In particular, this article reviews the association between sleep and carcinogenesis, focusing the role of melatonin involved to this mechanism.
Keywords: tumor markers, biological, sleep deprivation.
Growing evidence is showing important health impacts of sleep disruption. Sleep restriction is becoming increasingly common in today’s 24/7 society. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggest that reduced sleep duration is associated with important health impacts such as obesity, diabetes, myocardial infarction and mortality. Mechanistic research is underway to define the important causal pathways. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder with major cardiovascular sequelae. Repetitive upper airway collapse accompanied by hypoxemia and hypercapnia plus catecholamine surges and swings in intrathoracic pressure all contribute to the deleterious effects on cardiac function. At present the data are less compelling that treatment of sleep apnea prevents heart attack or stroke, although large scale trials are ongoing. Patients with heart failure commonly experience sleep disordered breathing in the form of either obstructive or central apnea. Randomized trials are ongoing to define the optimal therapy for these individuals beyond maximization of medical therapy. Through onoing research, new therapeutic targets/strategies are likely to emerge which will help to minimize the impact of sleep disturbance on afflicted patients.
Keywords: apnea, CPAP, heart, hypoxemia, lung, sleep.