OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to ascertaining whether sleeping problems affect aggression levels in adult offenders undergoing inpatient psychiatric treatment and exploring the phenomenon in terms of differences in gender, crime severity, and psychopathology.
METHODS: We used a sample of 70 adult male and female offenders, inpatients of a forensic psychiatry hospital, to whom we applied the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which evaluates the subjective sleep quality, latency, duration, habitual subjective sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and impairing daytime sleepiness in the preceding 30 days, and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), which measures physical and verbal aggressiveness, hostility, and anger.
RESULTS: A positive correlation between sleep quality and level of aggression was found (r = .254, p < .05; r2= .065). There were no significant correlation between sleep quality and crime severity (X2 = 1,984, p = .371). When controlled by gender, women showed significantly worse sleep quality than men (Z =- 2,243, p = .025) but no significant difference in aggression level (Z = -1,806, p = .071). There were no significant difference in either sleep quality or aggression level among individuals diagnosed with different kinds of psychopathology (X2 = 4,366, p =.359) (X2 = 2,248, p = .690).
CONCLUSION: The results show a relationship between sleep quality and aggression level, but the relationship is correlated to neither crime severity nor psychopathology.
Keywords: aggression, crime, gender, psychopathology, sleep.
The progress of knowledge in the area of mental health still depends, at least in part, on the development of experimental paradigms using laboratory animals. In such context, sleep deprivation and its effects were proposed as an animal model of mania. Although being a prominent manifestation of mania, the increased impulsivity in sleep deprived rats seems to be not experimentally confirmed, albeit its occurrence foresaw. Such fact may be explained as due the short lasting duration of the behavioral effects of sleep deprivation, which seems to hinder long lasting evaluations. The present study, therefore, demonstrated an alternative way to operationally apprehend impulsivity and used it to confirm the higher impulsivity levels in sleep deprived rats. The latency, number of episodes, and the total time displayed by rats to move from a safe platform to narrow runways, where the risk to drop into a water tank was high, showed to lower after experiencing fall, indicating an increase in consequence evaluation. Sleep deprived rats showed a significantly greater number of displacements to strait runways and a greater time spent in this risk situation. It is concluded that the method used is reliable and allows confirming the occurrence of enhanced impulsivity in sleep deprived rats.
Keywords: animal model, behavioral methods, impulsivity, mania, sleep deprivation.
OBJECTIVE: Sleep deprivation and poor quality of sleep are a current issue in our society. In animal models, sleep deprivation can induce diverse alterations, including oxidative stress in several organs. A highly active hydroxyl radical can break the DNA strands generating 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Thus, this DNA damage may compromise gene expression. Another factor that can alter gene expression is the DNA methylation, which is associated with transcription control. Considering these observations the aim of this study was to evaluate if sleep deprivation in rats could lead to DNA oxidative damage and if DNA methylation pattern could be changed by sleep deprivation.
METHODS: A group of male Wistar rats were submitted to the sleep deprivation procedure for 96h (Sleep-Deprived - SD) by the classical platform method; another group of animals were put individually into the same container as the sleep-deprived animals, but the water was substituted by wood paring (Control - CT); and the last group, where the animals were allowed to sleep 24h after the sleep deprivation (Rebound - RB). After the experimental procedure, animals were euthanized. Serum and whole blood were collected to quantify 8-OHdG and global DNA methylation.
RESULTS: Analyzing serum 8-OHdG, global methylation and global/CpG islands methylation ratio, we found no differences when comparing the experimental and CT groups. Analyzing CpG islands methylation we found a decrease of methylation at the islands on SD group compared with CT group and at the RB group this alteration did not returned to basal levels.
CONCLUSION: The decrease in CpG islands methylation could modulate an altered gene expression as a consequence of sleep deprivation and sleep recovery.
Keywords: dna methylation, oxidative stress, rats, sleep deprivation.
The aim of this article was the translation into Portuguese of the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISC), a tool for screening sleep disorders in infants and toddlers (0-3 years). After obtaining the consent from the author (Avi Sadeh), two bilingual professionals translated the questionnaire into Portuguese. Later, two other bilingual professionals performed the back translation into English. The best version of BISQ was chosen in a consensus meeting. The translation of BISQ into Portuguese will allow effective screening and that a greater number of children with sleep disorders could be diagnosed by pediatricians in Portuguese-speaking countries.
Keywords: infant, questionnaires, sleep disorders.
Neuropeptides have a fundamental role on sleep-wake cycle control and their proteolytic processing regulates their actions. Proteases are essential for the metabolism of neuropeptides, by release either from active or inactive precursors or by the inactivation of active neuropeptides. Using the Merops, a peptidase database, the Brenda Enzyme Database, the Expasy Bioinformatics Resource Portal and the published literature on normal sleep physiological regulation, we performed a review aimed to identify the proteases that can metabolize neuropeptides involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle and could be altered during and after sleep deprivation.
Keywords: neuropeptides, proteases, sleep, sleep deprivation.
Economic demand has modified the temporal organization of work and established the system of shift work. The inability of the individual worker to maintain an adequate quantity and quality of sleep after a day of shift work is damaging to the physical, psychological and socio-familiar aspects of worker health. It may cause chronic fatigue and stress and increase the risk for cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. The sleep disorders most often developed by routine shift work are insomnia and excessive sleepiness. These disorders have the potential to generate errors at work due to a loss of attention and promptitude during the performance of tasks, harm the productivity and quality of services and contribute to accidents and fatalities. In this short review, the main consequences of shift work as they relate to worker health and welfare and some management proposals currently being discussed in the literature are presented.
Keywords: circadian rhythm, disorders of excessive somnolence, health risk, insomnia, shift work, sleep.