Over the last three to four decades, it has been observed that the average total number of hours of sleep obtained per night by normal individuals have decreased. Concomitantly, global figures indicate that insufficient sleep is associated with serious adverse health and social outcomes. Moreover, insufficient sleep has been linked to seven of the fifteen leading causes of death. Additionally, current evidence suggests that sleep plays a significant role in determining cognitive performance and workplace productivity. There is a great need for a systematic analysis of the economic impact of insufficient sleep, particularly given current evidence that this phenomenon, as well as the poor sleep hygiene practices which produce it, is increasing worldwide. This paper takes the view that health authorities around the world need to raise the general awareness of benefits of sleep. There is considerable scope for research into both the public health impact as well as the macroeconomic consequences of insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS). Additionally, various models which estimate the undiagnosed burden of ISS on the GDP (gross domestic product) are needed to prioritize health issues and to highlight the national policies that are necessary to combat this medical problem. Sleep insufficiency has been declared to be a 'public health epidemic'; therefore, we propose ISS as a potential noncommunicable disease. This review elaborates on this topic further, exploring the causes and consequences of insufficient sleep, and thus providing a perspective on the policies that are needed as well as the research that will be required to support and justify these policies.
Keywords: Sleep Deprivation; Mortality; Morbidity; Epidemics; Public Health.
OBJECTIVE: to determine the value of dopamine transporter (DAT) neuroimaging radiotracer in a group of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) patients regarding the development of a synucleinopathy.
METHODS: 6 retrospectively selected patients with clinical and polysomnographic diagnosis of iRBD, on treatment or not, were submitted to a single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with TRODAT.
RESULTS: Five from six patients have an abnormal test showing reduction in DAT density measured by the linkage potential on SPECT.
CONCLUSIONS: TRODAT crosses the blood brain barrier, has a high affinity for DAT and is capture by SPECT. The decreased uptake of DAT tracers means a reduction in dopaminergic activity which suggest the possibility of Parkinson Disease. We have tried to reinforce iRBD as a marker of neurodegenerative disease and suggest SPECT with TRODAT as an easy method in our country to follow longitudinally these patients.
Keywords: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Computed Tomography; REM Sleep Behavior Disorder; Parkinson Disease.
OBJECTIVE: Although neuroticism is the strongest personality predictor of sleep disturbance, it is not clear whether dysphoric (Withdrawal) or angry (Volatility) aspect of neuroticism is more important and whether problematic technology use plays an intervening role. To this end, this study examined distinct contributions of neurotic withdrawal and volatility in predicting self-reported sleep disturbance while testing the mediating role of problematic internet use.
METHODS: One-hundred and fourty-three college students completed an online survey that included measures of neuroticism, sleep quality, and problematic internet use.
RESULTS: Although both aspects of neuroticism predicted poor sleep, Withdrawal emerged as a stronger and the only unique predictor. Furthermore, problematic internet use explained a portion of Withdrawal's relationship to worse sleep, especially nighttime and daytime disturbances.
DISCUSSION: The findings suggest that dysphoric rather than angry features of neuroticism are more important for sleep problems and that the problematic use of modern technology may be an important contributing factor.
Keywords: Sleep Wake Disorders; Sleep; Internet; Personality.
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on perception of task difficulty and use of heuristics (mental shortcuts) compared to naturally-experienced sleep at home.
METHODS: Undergraduate students were screened and assigned through block-random assignment to Naturally-Experienced Sleep (NES; n=19) or Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD; n=20). The next morning, reported fatigue, perception of task difficulty, and use of "what-is-beautiful-is-good," "greedy algorithm," and "speed-accuracy trade-off" heuristics were assessed.
RESULTS: NES slept for an average of 354.74 minutes (SD=72.84), or 5.91 hours. TSD rated a reading task as significantly more difficult and requiring more time than NES. TSD was significantly more likely to use the greedy algorithm heuristic by skipping instructions and the what-is-beautiful-is-good heuristic by rating an unattractive consumer item with a favorable review as poor quality. Those in Total Sleep Deprivation who chose more difficult math problems made this selection to finish the task more quickly in findings approaching significance, indicating use of the speed-accuracy trade-off heuristic. Collapsed across conditions, self-reported fatigue predicted greater perceived difficulty in both the reading task and a visuo-motor task, higher quality rating for the attractive consumer item, and lower quality rating for the unattractive consumer item.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate sleep deprivation and fatigue increase perceptions of task difficulty, promote skipping instructions, and impair systematic evaluation of unappealing stimuli compared to naturally-experienced sleep.
Keywords: Sleep Deprivation; Fatigue; Perception; Heuristics; Effort, Physical; Decision Making; Motivation.
INTRODUCTION: The seasonal pattern for mood and behaviour, the behavioural trait of morningness-eveningness, and sleep are interconnected features, that may serve as etiological factors in the development or exacerbation of medical conditions.
METHODS: The study was based on a random sample of inhabitants aged 25 to 74 years living in Finland. As part of the national FINRISK 2012 study participants were invited (n=9905) and asked whether the doctor had diagnosed or treated them during the past 12 months for chronic diseases.
RESULTS: A total of 6424 participants filled in the first set of questionnaires and 5826 attended the physical health status examination, after which the second set of questionnaires were filled. Regression models were built in which each condition was explained by the seasonal, diurnal and sleep features, after controlling for a range of background factors. Of the chronic diseases, depressive disorder was associated with longer total sleep duration (p<.0001) and poor sleep quality (p<.0001). Of the measurements for health status assessment, none associated with sleep features, but systolic blood pressure yielded significant (p<.0001) associations with both seasonal and diurnal features at large.
CONCLUSION: Sleep quality was the most sensitive probe in yielding associations with chronic diseases in this population-based study. The seasonal variations in mood and social activity, and the ease in getting up and tiredness in the morning were the most sensitive probes in yielding associations with blood pressure and waist circumference. Assessment of sleep quality, seasonal and diurnal features provides thus added value for health surveys of the general population.
Keywords: Affective Symptoms; Chronobiology Disorders; Population; Sleep Wake Disorders.
OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence about the effect of socio-economic status (SES) on the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We aimed to investigate this relationship in a referral population in Greece, with regards to other established risk factors.
METHODS: We used a retrospective cross-sectional design to assess socio-economic status based on occupational activity in a sample of 282 OSA patients diagnosed in a public hospital sleep laboratory during one-year period. Demographic, anthropometric and social characteristics, as well as the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) scores and apnea-hypopnea indexes (AHI) of subjects in each socio-economic class were recorded and statistically significant differences were explored in univariate and multiple regression analysis.
RESULTS: 99 (35.1%) of the subjects were categorized in the upper, 70 (24.8%) in the intermediate and 113 (40.1%) in the working class. Subjects of the intermediate class had significantly larger neck circumference than those of the upper class (p=0.022). Neither class differed significantly in terms of ESS score and intermediate class had a trend for higher AHI than upper class (p=0.075 in univariate and p=0.082 in multivariate analysis). Age (p=0.020) and occasional alcohol consumption (p=0.022) were independent negative and neck circumference (p<0.001) positive correlates of the variance in ESS score, while body mass index (p=0.004), neck circumference (p<0.001), being married (p=0.014) and current smoker (p=0.025) were independent positive correlates of the variance in AHI.
DISCUSSION: SES has a minor effect on OSA severity that is only partially accounted for by other known risk factors. Neck circumference was found to be the most useful predictor of both subjective daytime sleepiness and severity of respiratory events during sleep.
Keywords: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive; Social Class; Disorders of Excessive Somnolence; Polysomnography.
INTRODUCTION: Hysterectomy is a common gynecologic surgery carried out to remove the pathologic uterus. OBJECTIVE: To establish if sleep disorders and sexual function are associated with deterioration of the quality of life (QoL) in hysterectomized and sexually active women.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with inhabitants from two cities of the Colombian Caribbean. The pollsters invited women aged between 40-59 years to participate; in their communities they applied surveys with demographic characteristics: Female Sexual Function Index, Atenas Insomnia Scale and Menopause Rating Scale. Sexually active women were selected; then the association was established with logistic regression.
RESULTS: 522 women were studied with an average age of 50 years: 30% oophorectomized, 59.8% Hispanic, 40.2% afro-descendants and 22.2% hormonal therapy users. 80% of them had somato/vegetative, psychological or urogenital deterioration; 29.1% with severe deterioration of QoL and 47.5% with insomnia. Out of 390 (74.7%) with sexual activity, 59.7% suffered from sexual dysfunction. Insomnia: OR:3.05 [95%CI:1.86-4.99], sexual dysfunction OR:3.52 [95%CI:2.01-6.17], dissatisfaction about sexuality OR:4.77 [95%CI:2.08-10.93], low or non-existent sexual desire OR:2.94 [95%CI:1.65-5.25], daytime drowsiness OR:3.15 [95%CI:1.59-6.24] and decrease in daytime well-being OR:3.18 [95%CI:1.79-5.64]. These were factors associated with severe worsening of QoL, while the presence of genital lubrication was protective, OR: 0.44 [95%CI:0.21-0.93], p=0.0332.
CONCLUSION: It was observed that insomnia and sexual dysfunction behaved as factors associated with three times more severe deterioration of the QoL in climacteric and sexually active women previously hysterectomized.
Keywords: Menopause, Quality of Life; Insomnia; Sleep; Climacteric; Hysterectomy.
BACKGROUND: Sleep disorder is associated with poor quality of life in old age. Therefore, it is imperative to identify contributing factors leading to sleep disorder. The current study aimed to examine the impact of urinary incontinence on sleep complaint after controlling for potential sociodemographic and health covariates.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 184 community dwelling older adults 60 years and older in Yazd, Iran, 2016. In order to obtain the sample a multistage proportional random sampling technique was employed. Sociodemographic characteristics, sleep complaint, and urinary incontinence were collected from medical records. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 24. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the impact of urinary incontinence on sleep complaint after controlling for potential covariates.
FINDINGS: A total of 184 respondents with a mean age of 68.48±6.65 years (age range, 60-87 years) were included in the study. About 70% of the respondents were women, 72.8% were married, 68.5% were not formally educated, and 21.7% were living alone. The prevalence of sleep complaint and urinary incontinence were 27.2% (95% CI: 21-34) and 22.3% (95% CI: 17-29), respectively. The results of the multiple logistic regression analysis revealed respondents with urinary incontinence were four times more likely to suffer from sleep complaint than those without urinary incontinence after adjusting for potential covariates (AOR=4.04, 95% CI: 1.74-9.35, p<0.001).
CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this present study, which showed that urinary incontinence independently contributed to sleep complaint among older adults, it is necessary to employ effective interventions for controlling urinary incontinence to reduce sleep complaints.
Keywords: Aged; Community Dwelling; Sleep Wake Disorders; Urinary Incontinence.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the oral findings of patients who screen high and no risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) reporting to outpatient department of a dental college.
METHODS: Patients coming to dental Out Patient Department (OPD) were screened using STOP questionnaire and were categorized into high (n=130) and no risk (n=130) OSA groups. BANG (body mass index, age, neck circumference and gender) was recorded for both the OSA risk group patients. Following this oral and general examination was performed using predetermined criteria for temporomandibular disorder (TMD), Angle's Class of Malocclusion, maxillary arch constriction, facial profile, Mallampati score for uvula, tongue size, depth of palatal vault and periodontitis. Chi-squared statistics was applied to know the significant difference among the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression model was run by including the significant variables.
RESULTS: 94 females and 166 males were present in the study with a mean age of 43.67±11.89 in both the risk groups. All the variables except Angle's class of malocclusion and periodontitis showed significant difference among high and no risk OSA groups. Logistic regression confirmed that neck circumference, Class 3 or 4 Mallampati score, large tongue and deep palatal vault were commonly observed among high risk OSA group and were independent risk factors for developing high risk of OSA.
CONCLUSION: Neck circumference>40cm, large tongue, Class 3 or 4 Mallampati score and deep palatal vault were found to be independent predictors of developing high risk of OSA. Dentist can play a vital role in screening such patients as he comes in close vicinity of oral cavity and thus can refer the patients to sleep physician to promote interdisciplinary approach.
Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea; Risk Factors; Diagnosis, Oral; Surveys and Questionnaires; Dentists.
Mandibular advancement device (MAD) has been described as an alternative treatment to the severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), once it is not as effective as the continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) in reducing the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI). The objective of this study is to report a case using a MAD in a CPAP-intolerant patient suffering from severe OSA. Polysomnography exams were performed before and after treatment. Five months after fitting and titrating the MAD, the AHI was reduced from 80.5 events/hour to 14.6 events/hour and the minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) increased from 46% to 83%. A two-year assessment of therapy revealed an AHI of 8 events/hour and SpO2 of 85%.
Keywords: Sleep Apnea, Obstructive; Polysomnography; Mandibular Advancement.
Sleep-related breathing disturbances are exacerbated at altitude in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The objective of this case report was to determine if a portable auto-CPAP device effectively treated sleep apnea across different altitudes. We report the severity of sleep apnea from 60 to 12,000 feet high in a man with severe OSA (Apnea Hypopnea Index at diagnosis = 60 events/hour) during the 2017 Dakar rally over the Andes mountains. The man was equipped with a lightweight portable auto-CPAP device with a narrow window [6-8 cmH2O]. Pressures delivered and corresponding residual events were assessed at different altitudes. The 95th percentile pressure reached the maximal set pressure at the highest altitudes, and residual AHI increased from 5 events/hour to 45 events/hour at the highest altitudes. Potential mechanisms behind the development of central apnea, and optimal clinical management at altitude are discussed in the light of the findings.
Keywords: Altitude; Acetazolamide; Continuous Positive Airway Pressure; Sleep Apnea Syndromes.